A recent review by Konopka and Harber (2014) stated that aerobic training can cause similar muscle growth as resistance training. If you read between the lines, however, this benefit is only true for older (65+) or very sedentary individuals. Young, healthy, and active people will get much better growth effects from resistance training. Always make sure to read past the abstract when reading scientific papers! Check out article, “What Causes Growth?” here for more info.
Reference 1: Konopka, A. R., & Harber, M. P. (2014). Skeletal muscle hypertrophy after aerobic exercise training. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 42(2), 53.
Reference 2: Trappe, S., Harber, M., Creer, A., Gallagher, P., Slivka, D., Minchev, K., & Whitsett, D. (2006). Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(3), 721-727.