Tag: hypertrophy

Muscle Damage for Muscle Growth



Muscle growth is an intriguing topic. I’ve spent the better part of my career helping others maximize the process. One of the areas we must understand is how muscle growth occurs. There are at least three primary ways muscle may be triggered to grow. Mechanical tension (the strain and load on the muscle is one of them. Tension, whether high or moderate and sustained over time can cause growth. The outcome of tension we are unaccustomed to is an elevation in muscle damage. While we are uncertain if muscle damage causes growth we do know it results from novel training and that novel training results in growth. In my years of study, I have come to the conclusion that training that results in small to moderate amounts of muscle damage may stimulate growth while extreme amounts may do the opposite. Thus in this article, I will answer your questions from what muscle damage is, how you can trigger it and what steps you can take to NOT OVERDO it.

What is Muscle Damage and How Does It Happen?


Muscle damage occurs when you lift heavy or do eccentric training. In a muscle fiber, you have a chain of sarcomeres, which are the contractile units of a muscle fiber. Some of these are weaker than others. When a muscle fiber is stressed with heavy weight or repeated loads these weaker sarcomeres essentially are injured beyond repair. This leads to soreness, swelling, and a decrease in strength.

Muscle damage occurs during lengthening or eccentric contractions. The natural repair process involves inflammation, swelling, and pain. However, if nutrition is ideal afterward, you will gain muscle mass and potentially strength.

Does the Type of Contraction You Do Impact Muscle Damage?


Lifting involves upwards (concentric), downwards (eccentric) and squeezing (isometric) phases. Muscle damage is highest when you lower the weight. For this reason, doing heavy or forced eccentric exercise can cause a lot of soreness the next day. Therefore, if you are trying to shock the muscle to grow this may be a good technique. In contrast to a recovery workout, try using lighter weights and focusing on a pump on the concentric portion of the lift.

Can you Cause Too Much Muscle Damage?


We like to always assume that if some of a good thing gets us gains that a lot must be even better. Thus athletes like to think that as muscle damage goes up that growth goes up at the same time. However, it seems that this is only true up to a moderate amount of damage. If it is too high such that it lasts over a week you may damage and actually lose size. In the end, you will actually cause a small loss of muscle (Foley et al. 1999). This usually occurs when you have taken time off for a long time, are a beginner or just push past the point of no return. Shawn Ray one of the greatest bodybuilders of all time always said to “stimulate, don’t annihilate.”

When should you be most concerned about causing too much damage? The answer is when you are not well trained or if you have taken time off. For example, one study found that after high volume training that deconditioned individuals lost muscle and it remained smaller for months (Foley et al. 1999)! For this reason, we will discuss what causes muscle damage and then how we can first make the muscle protected against extreme damage.

Intensity and Muscle Damage

Intensity is defined by how heavy of a weight you are lifting. Research shows that heavier weights cause more muscle damage (Nosaka et al. 2002). Thus, your heavier days (5-8 reps with 3-5 minutes rest) will cause muscle growth through mechanical trauma. However, if you are doing a recovery workout you might increase your reps (12-15) and lower your rest to cause growth through more metabolic stress.

How Does Rep Speed Effect Muscle Damage?


Many people think that going slower on the way down of a lift will make you grow faster. In reality, it’s the opposite. Faster reps cause more muscle damage. Thus if the goal is to trigger mechanical trauma to induce growth to use faster reps with control. Why is this the case? You will get more training volume and be able to lift heavier loads (Chapman et al. 2008). It’s important to understand that purposely slowing the speed of a rep will by nature lower the amount of weight you can lift with that weight (Sakamoto et al. 2006).

In addition to this what you must realize is that the amount of weight you lift and the amount of fatigue you have will naturally slow the weight down anyway (Duffey et al. 2000). This means that the first half of a set may be fast but as you fatigue, each rep will naturally become slow. Similarly, if you lift 100 lbs it will be faster than if you lifted 200. Thus use a speed that allows you to have good form and let the weight and fatigue dictate the rest.

How Does Training Volume Effect Muscle Damage?


The easiest way to define volume is simply how much total weight you lift in a workout. The more sets you perform generally speaking the higher your volume. Studies show greater training volumes result in more muscle damage and often growth (Brown et al. 1992). Thus, for days you are trying to grow, select out higher volumes, but not so high as to annihilate. This will inevitably vary with your conditioning. For example, if you are untrained 4 sets may be high volume, while someone with high levels of experience may be able to handle 20 to 30. In general, if you lift high volume every week and every workout your body won’t be able to recover. Thus if your low volume is 8 sets do that week one, and week 2 to 12 and week 3 16 to 20 per set. Then back down to 8 per body part the following week.

Other Thoughts on Muscle Damage

Range of Motion

The range of motion you use when training can dramatically increase muscle damage. Partial reps do not trigger as much muscle damage or growth when you compare them to full range of motion. Therefore, we recommend using full range-of-motion-on when lifting any weight. Unless you are going to failure on your sets and using failure training, then you can use partial reps.



A question I commonly get asked is, “does active recovery help with muscle damage?” The answer to this is that warming up doesn’t necessarily speed recovery from muscle damage or help you recover strength. However, it does have a pain-relieving effect. This to relieve pain from training. So add an extra 5 to 10 minutes to your workouts for warming up.

Repeated Bout Effect


Another question I am asked is, “why do I stop getting sore from lifting weights?” The answer to this is that muscle damage does decrease over time. If you do the same workout over and over again your body adapts by adding new muscle fibers & cells. This may be why we stop growing. While too much muscle damage may be a bad thing, I believe a little is good for growth. To combat this “bulletproof vest” make sure you continually change the exercises you select and rep or set ranges. In fact, for bodybuilding, every month I would change all the exercises you are doing entirely!


Muscle damage is an extremely complex topic. Too much damage and you can impair gains, while a small amount may increase muscle size and strength. Overall the key is to keep damage to low to moderate levels in your training by introducing new training regimes, new exercises, and by properly progressing from one phase to another.


Lesson on Bodybuilding vs. Powerlifting




I can still remember the first time I saw the quads of Tom Platz. It was awe-inspiring, breathtaking, and phenomenally unreal. Tom Platz developed legs that had never been seen in the world of bodybuilding and we will never see again. Often referred to as “The Golden Eagle” and “The Quadfather,” Tom Platz has inspired more than a generation of athletes to redefine the meaning of leg day and the squat.

As many of you know a key to amazing quads is the almighty squat. This is where I will introduce a second character into this story, an idol of mine, a man who was one of the first true geniuses to bridge the gap between the science of training and application. In fact, the book he wrote on the Science of Bodybuilding was probably the first book I read on the topic that truly inspired my career. I am referring to Fred Hatfield. Dr. Fred Hatfield earned a PhD in psychology, sociology, and motor learning. He is also known for breaking the world record on squat with 1014 pounds at the age of 45 and the first person to squat over 1000 pounds! Combine the two accomplishments and Fred’s fans affectionately referred to him as the one and only Dr. Squat.

The Dream Squat Match: Fred Hatfield vs. Tom Platz


In sports, we dream of wars between athletes. Battles like Ali vs Frazier and Herns vs. Haggler are examples of such wars. In the bodybuilding and powerlifting realm, one such match was Dr. Squat and Tom Platz. The rules of the match? Who could squat 500 pounds for more reps? At the time Fred could squat 855 pounds, while Platz could squat a little over 600 pounds. If we went off of max squat we would hands down predict Fred would win. In fact, Dr. Squat was able to beat Platz with a one rep squat max of 840 pounds vs. Platz’s 600-pound squat.

However, when it came to squatting 500 pounds for reps, Platz beat Fred. Fred Hatfield was able to squat 500 pounds for 11 reps while Platz blew through 23 reps! These numbers are actually debated today. As you can see in the video below, Platz squat for 23 reps. However, depending on the video or source, some say the number of reps may have exceeded 23 and the weight may be as high as 525 pounds.

The question remains, why was Dr. Squat able to squat significantly more weight than Platz, but when the weight was reduced Platz was able to squat more reps? The answer to this question lies in the fact that bodybuilding and powerlifting are two separate and distinct sports. While strength helps us gain muscle, strength endurance does as well. Tom Platz had both, which is necessary for a maximizing the size of your quads. To further elaborate, let’s assess both of these Titans’ training regimens.

The Leg Day Programs

As a powerlifter, Hatfield won 2 IPF World Powerlifting Championships titles in 1983 and 1986. At the age of 45, he set a squat world record by lifting 1014 pounds in the 100 kg weight class. This program from Hatfield’s program contains two workouts per week: Workout A is a ‘light’ day and Workout B is a ‘heavy’ day. The routine is designed to add 10% to your 1 rep maximum in 9 weeks.

Dr. Squats Training Program


This program made several championship powerlifters and earned Fred Hatfield a world record. However, as you can see, it’s aimed at maximal strength and would yield low gains in strength endurance. How does this differ from Tom Platz’s program? Let’s have a look.

Know Your Whey Protein



When it comes to supplementation, protein is arguably the most commonly used among athletes with whey protein being the number source. A new protein has surfaced on the market called hydrolyzed whey protein. Before we proceed, I want you to understand that protein has various structures. This includes primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The primary and secondary protein structures are simply chains of amino acids (the building blocks of protein) bound together by water. As protein becomes more complex, for example, the steak you’re going to eat later tonight, the chains of amino acids start to fold over top of each other and begin to form what we know as muscle (NIH, 2017).

The process of collecting whey protein first comes from collecting cow’s milk. This dairy is then separated into curds, that eventually can be used to create a whey liquid. The protein goes through pasteurization and filtration to create our beloved whey protein powder. However, one more step is required for hydrolyzed whey; a process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis breaks these bonds between amino acids resulting in smaller amino acid chains and free amino acids; hydrolyzed protein. Smaller chains and free amino acids allow for much faster digestion and absorption! As you can see, regular whey protein has higher amounts of the secondary and tertiary protein structures. Although, hydrolyzed whey protein is broken down more, which means that it has more simple chains of amino acids (Zumwalt et al., 1987).

Hydro Whey and Fat Loss

Now that we understand what hydrolyzed whey is, we are going to take a look at how it compares to normal whey protein on body composition and recovery. When it comes to gaining muscle mass and increasing strength, whey and hydrolyzed whey both exhibit similar effects.

Where they differ is changes in fat loss. A recent study showed that subjects supplementing with hydrolyzed whey experienced a greater loss in fat mass and body fat compared to subjects using regular whey protein (Lockwood et al., 2014).

This increase in fat loss in the hydrolyzed protein group is due to a different of reasons including a rise in total amino acids, improved insulin response, and an increase in satiety hormones. The research also showed that muscle cells were able to burn more fat! This study suggests that using hydrolyzed whey over regular whey protein is beneficial if the goal is to lose fat mass while simultaneously increasing muscle mass. If your goal is to bulk up with little to no concerns towards gaining fat mass, then there is no benefit of using hydrolyzed whey over regular whey protein (Lockwood et al., 2014).

The Lactate Lie

The common misconception regarding lactic acid is that a buildup of lactate in the cells is related to muscle soreness, however, that is not necessarily true. Lactic acid is a byproduct from the energy system glycolysis. If we continue to exercise, eventually lactate cannot clear fast enough resulting in the impaired function of glycolysis (Abramson et al., 1993). In conclusion, Yes! As a result of physical activity you will have a buildup of lactic acid, but as soon as you stop exercising your body begins to clear lactate once again. Therefore, short term (during training) lactic acid can cause pain, but after you stop working out it does not cause soreness.


If lactate or lactic acid isn’t responsible for muscle soreness, then what is? This soreness that you may have experienced is called DOMS or delayed onset muscle soreness. DOMS is believed to be caused by micro-trauma to the muscle fibers. This micro-trauma heals and creates a larger, stronger muscle fiber and is also considered to be a contributing factor to muscle hypertrophy. DOMS may not be fully preventable, however, there are some treatments that have shown to help with muscle soreness after exercise and one of them is supplementing with hydrolyzed whey. When two groups of participants were put through a muscle damaging workout, the group consuming hydrolyzed whey protein increased recovery (Nosaka, 2008).

The Thermic Effect of Protein

When it comes to metabolism, there are a number of factors that contribute to your daily energy expenditure, one being the thermic effect of food (TEF). This accounts for roughly 10-15% of your daily caloric expenditure. TEF is impacted by the caloric content of a meal, the diet of the individual, and the composition of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates of the meal. Studies have shown that the greater the protein content of a meal, the higher the TEF (Tataranni et al., 1995). Dr. Jose Antonio (2015) found that an increased intake of protein (roughly 1.5g/pound/day) resulted in a decrease of body fat while gaining muscle! One group ate a normal protein intake and another group ate high protein (1.5g/pound/day). Both groups saw similar increases in muscle mass but the high protein group experienced much more fat loss, even though the high protein group consumed more calories (2600 vs. 2100 calories).


Research has shown us that protein types have different benefits. Dr. Jose Antonio has shown us that an increase in protein intake to roughly 1.5g per pound per day increases fat loss while increasing muscle mass. Still, the question remains, does the amount of protein consumed post workout matters? How much is needed to maximize muscle growth?

Protein Post Workout


To answer this question a group of researchers in Dr. Tipton’s lab analyzed the impact of 0g, 10g, 20g, and 40g of whey protein in active, young, college aged individuals at rest and following resistance training. At rest 20g was enough to maximize protein synthesis, however, after training, protein synthesis was not maximized until 40g of protein was consumed (Witard et al., 2014). Suggesting that consuming a larger dose of protein post exercise can assist in muscle growth. What makes consuming protein so critical around a workout? Are there specific amino acids that act as a trigger for protein synthesis; the building of new muscle in the body. With one of those specific amino acids being Leucine (La Bounty et al., 2011).


When it comes to protein type and protein intake, we do believe according to research, that there are a number of different methods that can be used to strategically design your macronutrient distribution according to your goals. Whether that be through supplementation or diet intervention. Therefore, before starting any diet, it is beneficial to explore all options so that you can use the most effective method.